AskDefine | Define acrylonitrile

Dictionary Definition

acrylonitrile n : a colorless liquid unsaturated nitrile made from propene [syn: propenonitrile, vinyl cyanide]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

  1. A toxic colourless liquid organic compound, CH2=CH.CN, synthesized from propylene and ammonia; used as a monomer in the production of acrylic resins and synthetic rubber.

Synonyms

Extensive Definition

Acrylonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CHCN. This pungent-smelling colorless liquid often appears yellow due to impurities. It is an important monomer for the manufacture of useful plastics. In-terms-of its molecular structure, it consists of a vinyl group linked to a nitrile.

Uses

Acrylonitrile is used principally as a monomer in the manufacture of synthetic polymers, especially polyacrylonitrile which comprises acrylic fibers. Acrylic fibers are, among other uses, precursor for well-known carbon-fiber. It is also a component of synthetic rubber. Dimerization of acrylonitrile affords adiponitrile, used in the synthesis of certain Nylons. Small amounts are also used as a fumigant. Acrylonitrile and derivatives such as 2-chloro-acrylonitrile are dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions. Acrylonitrile is also a precursor in the industrial manufacture of acrylamide and acrylic acid.

Production

Acrylonitrile is probably the nitrile manufactured on the largest scale. Most industrial acrylonitrile is produced through the Sohio process, the catalytic ammoxidation of propylene:
2CH3-CH=CH2 + 2NH3 + 3O2 → 2CH2=CH-C≡N + 6H2O
World annual production in 2001 was 4 million tonnes and in 2005 6 million tonnes, with just under half of that coming from the United States. In 1996 the Sohio acrylonitrile process was designated an ACS National Historical Chemical Landmark in recognition of the innovative single-step method of production that made acrylonitrile available for chemical manufacturing worldwide.http://acswebcontent.acs.org/landmarks/landmarks/soh/index.html

Safety

Acrylonitrile is highly flammable and toxic. It undergoes explosive polymerization. The burning material releases fumes of hydrogen cyanide and oxides of nitrogen. Acrylonitrile is classified as a recognized human carcinogen

References

External links

acrylonitrile in German: Acrylnitril
acrylonitrile in Spanish: Acrilonitrilo
acrylonitrile in French: Acrylonitrile
acrylonitrile in Italian: Acrilonitrile
acrylonitrile in Dutch: Acrylonitril
acrylonitrile in Japanese: アクリロニトリル
acrylonitrile in Polish: Akrylonitryl
acrylonitrile in Portuguese: Acrilonitrila
acrylonitrile in Russian: Акрилонитрил
acrylonitrile in Finnish: Akryylinitriili
acrylonitrile in Ukrainian: Акрилонітрил
acrylonitrile in Chinese: 丙烯腈
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